Medicinal plant reference

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Plant reference's for my book, ''A SHAMANS TRUE TALES & HERBAL REMEDIES.''

This is a complimentary ''non commercial'' page for basic reference of medicinal plants described in the book 

‘’ A Shaman’s True Tales & Herbal Remedies.’’

This reference gives identification to plants used in the books medicinal recipes of remedy.

These plants and fungus's have been used by indigenous people of the America's and Canada for powerful medicine,

and also in part for sacred ceremonies.

The author is neither responsible nor liable for any readers use or misuse of any plant described in the book or illustrated on this page. Although plants described in the book are pictured here, this web site is for basic reference purposes only, and is not for commercial gain.  Although the images presented are of the actual labeled species, images are only for basic referencing and not to be used as models for positive safe identification. The images presented are public domain internet stock, and descriptions are from Wikipedia, the author is not liable for any readers that misidentify plants shown or described.

This website was created by Donald B. Young Jr.  for the readers educational convenience.

It has taken considerable work to compile the images and content.


These images may be subject to copyright.






Physical description. Agrimony plants are typically erect and bear toothed alternate leaves. The yellow flowers have five petals and feature characteristic hooked spines below the sepals. The fruit is a burlike achene.


Buckthorns (Rhamnus) are shrubs or smallish trees. The genus comprises more than 100 species most of which are native to East Asia. ... Alder buckthorn is a sparsely branched shrub or small tree which prefers fairly damp and rich sites. 




A revered herb from early AD with many medicinal uses as well as flavoring beer, as is evident by its common name, ale-hoof. ... He used diuretic foot baths made with ale hoof, greater celendine, couch grass, horsetail and broom, together with a herbal massage cream and a balanced, monitored diet. 


Alfalfa, Medicago sativa, is an herbaceous perennial in the plant family Fabaceae (peas and beans) which is primarily grown as a forage crop which can be grazed by animals or harvested as hay to be used as an animal feed. Alfalfa has a deeply penetrating taproot and the stems of the plant branch from a woody base, growing upright and erect or along the ground. The leaves of the plant are made up of three individual leaflets (trifoliate) which are are narrow and oval or oblong in shape with a smooth upper surface and slightly hairy lower surface. 



Angelica archangelica, commonly known as garden angelica, wild celery, and Norwegian angelica, is a biennial plant from the Apiaceae family, a subspecies of which is cultivated for its sweetly scented edible stems and roots. Angelica grows only in damp soil, preferably near rivers or deposits of water.


Anise (Pimpinella anisum), also called aniseed, is a flowering plant in the Apiaceae (parsley) family. Anise is an herbaceous annual plant with feathery leaves and white flowers which bloom in the summer. Flowers are produced in thick umbels. These umbels contain small brown seeds that have a strong licorice flavor.


Arrowhead, (genus Sagittaria), genus of plants of the family Alismataceae, consisting of at least 28 species distributed worldwide, having leaves resembling arrowpoints. Arrowheads are perennial herbs with fleshy rhizomes (and frequently with tubers) that grow in shallow lakes, ponds, and streams.


Aspen, any of three trees of the genus Populus, belonging to the willow family (Salicaceae), native to the Northern Hemisphere and known for the fluttering of leaves in the slightest breeze. P. tremuloides is distinguished by its leaves, which have more pointed tips, and it grows by root suckers.


Balsam Fir Abies balsamea. The balsam fir is a native evergreen well-adapted to the cold climates of the northern United States and Canada. Its symmetrical spire-like crown, shining dark green color and spicy fragrance have made it a favorite Christmas tree for hundreds of years.


Berberis thunbergii is a dense deciduous shrub 0.5-2.4 m (2-8 ft.) tall. It flowers from mid April to May in the Northeast and its fruits mature from July to October. The branches are glabrous, deeply grooved, brown and have usually simple spines.


Basswood, also known as American Linden is a large native North American treethat can grow more than 80 feet tall. In addition to being a majestic tree in the landscape, basswood is a soft, light wood and prized for hand carvings and making baskets.


Myrica pensylvanica, commonly called bayberry, is a dense-branching deciduous shrub with a rounded habit which typically grows 6-10' tall. The fruits are covered with an aromatic, waxy substance which is used to make bayberry candles, soaps and sealing wax.


Osha root is a popular Native American herb from the Southern Rocky Mountain region. It is a relative of lovage and is in the same family as parsley. Osha root grows best in high altitudes, i.e. above 10,000 feet, in dry alpine meadows. Wild osha root is an endangered plant.



The bearberry is a low, much-branched shrub trailing over the ground and having numerous leathery evergreen leaves about 1 inch in length. The waxy flowers, which appear in May, are few and are borne in short, drooping clusters at the ends of the branches.


A native perennial favorite, bee balm (also called wild bergamot) is beloved in flower beds for its beautiful blooms of red, pink, purple or white, plus the fragrant foliage. Here's how to plant and grow bee balm in your garden!


Beth root is a plant. The root, underground stem (rhizome), and leaf are used to make medicine. Despite safety concerns, women take beth root for heavy and painful menstrual periods.


It's a small shrub. Bilberry plant information tells us that both are berry shrubs in the Vaccinium genus. The fruit of the two species look alike and both taste good. However, blueberries you purchase are usually from cultivated shrubs while bilberry usually grows wild.


Birch species are generally small to medium-sized trees or shrubs, mostly of northern temperate and boreal climates. The bark of all birches is characteristically marked with long, horizontal lenticels, and often separates into thin, papery plates, especially upon the paper birch.


The main stem and root merge into a tuberous structure. The leaves are barely 2.5 cm (1 inch) long, and the flowering stalk with pink or white flowers is also very short. The starchy root, resembling a forked radish, is edible in spring but acquires abitter taste by summer.


Actaea racemosa. Black Cohosh is a striking woodland native that creates a strong vertical statement in a shade or border garden. The deep green foliage of Black Cohosh retains its good texture and color throughout the growing season. Large and bush-like, a mature plant makes an impressive specimen once established.


Black-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia hirta) Species Page. General Description: Black-eyed susan is a relatively large wildflower, ranging from 30-90 cm. in height. As indicated by its name, the flower head has a prominent black or dark-brown central cone that is surrounded by rich, yellow, petal-like rays.


Black gum, (Nyssa sylvatica), also called sour gum or black tupelo, tupelo tree(family Nyssaceae) prized for its brilliant scarlet autumnal foliage. The trees are largely dioecious, meaning that individuals usually bear only male or female flowers. The small dark drupes are attractive to birds and other wildlife.


Black walnut is an important tree commercially, as the wood is a deep brown color and easily worked. The fruits,walnuts, are cultivated for their distinctive and desirable taste. Often, trees are grown for both lumber and walnuts simultaneously and many cultivars have been developed for improved quality nuts or wood.


Blackberry, is a perennial shrub in the family Rosaceae that is grown for its aggregate black fruitof the same name. Blackberries have three stem types: erect, arching, and trailing. They often have thorns, but some varieties are thornless.


Blessed thistle is a plant. People use the flowering tops, leaves, and upper stems to make medicine. Blessed thistle was commonly used during the Middle Ages to treat the bubonic plague and as a tonic for monks. Don't confuse blessed thistle with milk thistle (Silybum marianum).


Bloodroot, (Sanguinaria canadensis), also called red puccoon, plant of the poppy family (Papaveraceae), native throughout eastern and midwestern North America. It grows in deciduous woodlands, where it blooms in early spring, and is sometimes cultivated as an ornamental. The orange-red sap of the rhizomes was formerly used by Native Americans for dye. The rhizomes also contain the medical alkaloid sanguinarine.


Blue Cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides), is a choice woodland wildflower treasured for its lacy blue-green foliage and deep blue berries. This beautiful woodland plant prefers a rich soil with consistent moisture, such as found in low woodlands. The early spring flowers clusters are a yellowish green.


Blue vervain is a native, perennial wildflower that grows from 2 to 5 feet tall. ... Blue vervain prefers moist conditions and full to partial sun. It can grow in disturbed sites and is commonly found in moist meadows, thickets, and pastures, as well as riversides, marshes, ditches, and river-bottom prairies.


Bogbean is an aquatic or bog plant, hence the common name. The 'bean' part of the name refers to the smooth-edged shiny leaves, which are roughly similar in appearance to those of young broad beans.


Eupatorium perfoliatum. Aster family (Asteraceae)Description: This perennial plant is 2-4' tall and unbranched, except for some flowering side stems near the apex. The central stem and side stems are covered with long white hairs. The opposite leaves are up to 8" long and 2" across, and light or yellowish green.


Burdock, (genus Arctium), also spelled burdock, a genus of biennial plants in the Asteraceae family, bearing globular flower heads with prickly bracts (modified leaves). Common, or lesser, burdock(Arctium minus) is a weed in North American pastures and hay fields and can be grown as a vegetable.


The shrub is native to the forests of Europe. It is also called knee holly because it grows only 1 to 3 feet tall (or knee high) and it is prickly. The name butcher's broom comes from an old use of theplant. Butchers used to tie a bundle of branches together and use it as a broom to clean off carving blocks.


Butterfly weed, (Asclepias tuberosa), also called pleurisy root, butterfly milkweed, or orange milkweed, North American plant of the dogbane family (Apocynaceae), a stout rough-haired perennial with long roots. The erect, somewhat branching stem grows up to 1 metre (3 feet) tall and has linear, alternately arranged leaves. In midsummer it bears numerous clusters of bright orange flowers that are highly attractive to butterflies.


Calamus is a plant. The root (rhizome) is used to make medicine. Despite safety concerns, calamus is commonly used by mouth for different stomach problems, including ulcers, inflammation of the stomach lining (gastritis), diarrhea, intestinal gas (flatulence), upset stomach, and many more.


California poppy, (Eschscholzia californica), plant of the poppy family (Papaveraceae), native to the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. It has become naturalized in parts of southern Europe, Asia, and Australia.


Catnip is an erect perennial best known for the minty odor emitted by its leaves and stems when they are crushed or wilted. The odor is very attractive to cats. Along with most members of the mint family, catnip has square stems.


Cats claw vine is a high-climbing woody vine that can grow up to 50 feet in length, often rooting at the node. The dark green leaves are opposite, compound, with small, wide leaflets that mature into ovate or lanceolate shaped leaves. Stems are vine-like and covered with lenticels.


Cattails are wetland plants with a unique flowering spike, flat blade like leaves that reach heights from 3 to 10 feet. They are one of the most common plants in large marshes and on the edge of ponds. Two species are most common in US: broad leaved cattail (T. latifolia) and narrow leaf cattail (T. angustifolia).


Without question the most popular uses of catuabaare for treating sexual impotence and boosting diminished desire. Erythroxylum catuaba is a small, vigorous-growing tree with yellow and orange flowers, which grows in the northern part of Brazil. The bark of catuaba contains aromatic oils, resins and sterols.


The cayenne pepper is a type of Capsicum annuum. The fruits are generally dried and ground to make the powdered spice of the same name, although cayenne powder may be a blend of different types of peppers, quite often not containing cayenne peppers, and may or may not contain the seeds.


Cedrus (common English name cedar) is a genus of coniferous trees in the plant family Pinaceae (subfamily Abietoideae). They are native to the mountains of the western Himalayas and the Mediterranean region, occurring at altitudes of 1,500–3,200 m in the Himalayas and 1,000–2,200 m in the Mediterranean.


Inonotus obliquus, commonly known as chaga mushroom(a Latinisation of the Russian word чага), is a fungus in the family Hymenochaetaceae. It is parasitic on birch and other trees. The sterile conk is irregularly formed and has the appearance of burnt charcoal.

South American herb said to dissolve kidney stones. The plant grows readily in the Amazon rainforest and other tropical areas of the world. Because of its wide distribution, it has several names including Phyllanthus niruriand “chanca piedra”.


It is shaped by a Mediterranean climate (mild, wet winters and hot dry summers) and wildfire, featuring summer-drought-tolerant plants with hard sclerophyllous evergreen leaves, as contrasted with the associated soft-leaved, drought-deciduous, scrub community of coastal sage scrub, found below the chaparralbiome.


Stellaria media, chickweed, is an annual flowering plant in the carnation family Caryophyllaceae. It is native to Europe, but naturalized in many parts of North America. It is used as a cooling herbal remedy, and grown as a vegetable crop and ground cover for both human consumption and poultry.


Chicory. Common chicory, Cichorium intybus, is a somewhat woody, perennial herbaceous plant of the dandelion family Asteraceae, usually with bright blue flowers, rarely white or pink. Many varieties are cultivated for salad leaves, chicons (blanched buds), or roots (var. Chicory is grown as a forage crop for livestock.


Chokecherry is a native, perennial, deciduous, woody, thicket-forming large erect shrub or small tree. It rarely reaches a height of over 30 feet. The bark of young trees may vary from gray to a reddish brown.


Cinchona plants belong to the family Rubiaceae and are large shrubs or small trees with evergreen foliage, growing 5–15 m (16–49 ft) in height. The leaves are opposite, rounded to lanceolate and 10–40 cm long. The flowers are white, pink or red, produced in terminal panicles. The fruit is a small capsule containing numerous seeds.


Cleavers are annuals with creeping straggling stems which branch and grow along the ground and over other plants. They attach themselves with the small hooked hairs which grow out of the stems and leaves. The stems can reach up to three feet or longer, and are angular or square shaped.


Colts foot is a perennial herbaceous plant that spreads by seeds and rhizomes. Tussilago is often found in colonies of dozens of plants. The leaves, which resemble a colt's foot in outline appear after the flowers have set seed and wither and die in the early summer.


Copaiba Balsam, Copaifera officinalis, is a well-branched tree with a short bole and wide canopy. ... Like other species in the Copaifera genus, it is a source of an oily oleo-resin known ascopaiba-balsam. The resin is used as a food additive and as flavoring agents in food and beverages.



Cornsilk (Zea mays ) is an herbal remedy made from stigmas, the yellowish thread-like strands found inside the husks of corn. The stigmas are found on the female flower of corn, a grain that is also known as maize and is a member of the grass family (Gramineae or Poaceae).


Couch grass or twitch grass (Elymus repens) is an old enemy for many gardeners. Its wiry, underground stems and creeping shoots pop up around garden plants and before long can take over a bed. As a perennial weed thorough killing or eradication of the roots is necessary.


cramp bark. ... Historically, as the name suggests, the bark of this shrub is made into extracts and tinctures, while the dried berry is used to make dark dye and ink. a little botanical information on cramp bark. Viburnum opulus is a species of flowering plant in the Adoxaceae family (formerly Caprifoliaceae).


Vaccinium macrocarpon is a low-lying fruit plant grown commercially in North America. The shrub bears beautiful pink flowers that grow into rounded reddish-black berries. The berries are harvested early in the fall, and made into juices, jellies, or relishes. Juice made from cranberries is a popular, tart fruit drink.


Damiana is a wild shrub that grows in Mexico, Central America, and the West Indies. The leaf and stem are used to make medicine. Historically, it was used mostly to increase sexual desire (as an aphrodisiac). Damiana is commonly used by mouth as an aphrodisiac and to treat sexual problems.


Dandelion Widespread perennial weed, with leaves growing from the base and yellow composite flowers. It reproduces by means of parachute seeds. The leaves are used in salads; the flowers in wine making. Family Asteraceae (Compositae); species Taraxacum officinale.


Deer-tongue grass is an annual native species that grows primarily in clumps in the southeastern United States. The leaves can reach 7-8 inches in length and a width of 12-25mm and they are without hairs on either surface and resemble a “deer's tongue”.


Proboscidea is a genus of flowering plant in the family Martyniaceae, some of whose species are known as devil's claw, devil's horn, ram's horn, or unicorn plant. The plants produce long, hooked seed pods. ... The name devil's claw is shared with the South African plant Harpagophytum procumbens.


Apocynum cannabinum (dogbane, amy root, hempdogbane, prairie dogbane, Indian hemp, rheumatism root, or wild cotton) is a perennial herbaceous plant that grows throughout much of North America - in the southern half of Canada and throughout the United States. It is a poisonous plant: Apocynum means "poisonous to dogs".


Echinacea is a perennial herb with slender, rough leaves arranged opposite each other on a stem that grows to a height of about 18 in (45 cm) and produces a single large purplish flower. Both the above ground parts of the plant and the roots are used in dietary supplements.


Although the ripe, cooked berries (pulp and skin) of most species of Sambucus are edible, uncooked berries and other parts of plants from this genus are poisonous. Leaves, twigs, branches, seeds, roots, flowers, and berries of Sambucus plants produce cyanidin glycosides and alkaloids, which have toxic properties.


Slippery Elm. The rough twigs, and leaves that are very rough on both sides help to distinguish this tree. The tree grows in rich, well-drained soils of bottom lands and slopes. It is well distributed but scattered in Ohio.


Epazote, also called Jesuit's tea and wormseed, is a flowering plant found in Mexico, South America and Central America. ... Epazote is an annual or short-lived perennial plant of the Amaranthaceae family, growing to 1.2 m tall, irregularly branched, with oblong-lanceolate leaves up to 12 cm long.


Ephedra is a shrub that is native to Pakistan, China, and northwestern India. Some ephedra species grow in the Southwest desert of the United States. The ephedra plant is a perennial evergreen that stands 1 foot high, on average. But it may grow up to 4 feet.


Oenothera biennis. To support our efforts please see our store (books with medicinal info), or browse the evening primrose products below. The evening primrose is a biennialplant that is perhaps best known for its seeds. Oil is extracted from the seeds and used for a variety of health problems.


Eyebright is a plant. The parts that grow above the ground are used to make medicine. Eyebright is taken by mouth to treat swollen (inflamed) nasal passages, allergies, hay fever, common cold, bronchial conditions, and inflamed sinuses (sinusitis). ... In foods, eyebright is used as a flavoring ingredient.


Chamaelirium is a genus of flowering plants containing the single species Chamaelirium luteum, commonly known as blazing-star, devil's bit, false unicorn, fairy wand, and helonias. It is a perennial herb native to the eastern United States.


Tanacetum parthenium, known as feverfew or bachelor's buttons, is a flowering plant in the daisy family Asteraceae. It is a traditional medicinal herb which is commonly used to prevent migraine headaches, and is also occasionally grown for ornament.


Figwort herb plants are related to the mullein plant from the family Scrophulariaceae, and some of their growing patterns and appearances are reminiscent of one another. Growing in similar fashion to mint, figworts reach heights of around 3 feet (91 cm.), with tops that bloom in summer.


The true forget-me-not flower (Myosotis scorpioides) grows on tall, hairy stems which sometimes reach 2 feet in height. Charming, five-petaled, blue blooms with yellow centers explode from the stems from May through October. Flower petals are sometimes pink.


Fringe tree grows as either a wide-spreading, multi-stemmed shrub or a small tree useful in native woodland gardens, as a specimen plant in groups, borders, or near large buildings.


American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius, L.) is a perennial herb that grows under a portion of the deciduous forest canopies of the eastern United States. ... Harvesting of "wild" ginseng is legal but only during a specific season defined by your state.

State plant of Wisconsin.


Goldenrod, any of about 150 species of weedy, usually perennial herbs that constitute the genus Solidago of the family Asteraceae. Most of them are native to North America, though a few species grow in Europe and Asia. They have toothed leaves that usually alternate along the stem and yellow flower heads composed of both disk and ray flowers. The many small heads may be crowded together in one-sided clusters, or groups of heads may be borne on short branches to form a cluster at the top of the stem.


Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis ) is a woodland plant belonging to the family Ranunculaceae. The plant gets its common name from its thick yellow rhizome. Native Americans used goldenseal as a multipurpose medicinal plant.


Gravel root is an herb. The bulb, root, and parts that grow above the ground are used to make medicine. Despite serious safety concerns, gravel root is used for urinary tract problems such as urinary or kidney stones; infections of the bladder, urethra, and prostate; and painful urination.


Edible Plants: Common Greenbrier. Description: This vine has lots of strong thorns, broad and heart-shaped leaves, and tendrils that sprout from the leaf axils. The leaf has parallel veins. Habitat: Common Greenbrier grows in thickets and woods.


Grindelia (gumweed) is a genus of plants native to the Americas belonging to the sunflower family. Grindelia robusta, found in the western states, is a coastal scrub bush that is reputed to have several medicinal uses.


P. crysan, P. sorbilis) is a climbing plant in the maple family, Sapindaceae, native to the Amazon basin and especially common in Brazil. Guarana has large leaves and clusters of flowers and is best known for the seeds from its fruit, which are about the size of a coffee bean.


Crataegus is a thorny shrub or tree with stems and trunks that consist of hard wood and gray bark, often having tri-lobed leaves and white flowers that are similar to other genera in the Rosaceae or Rose family and bearing bright red berries.


The American hazelnut (also known as the American filbert) is a native shrub of the eastern United States. The tasty nuts are highly prized by cooks for their easy-to-crack shells and small, sweet kernel. You'll need to plant 2 or more shrubs to ensure a good crop.


Henbane is a plant. The leaf is used to make medicine. Don't confuse henbane, sometimes called “fetid nightshade” or “stinking nightshade,” with bittersweet nightshade (Solanum dulcamara) or deadly nightshade (belladonna). Henbane leaf is used for spasms of the digestive tract.


Sharp-Lobed Hepatica (Hepatica nobilis acuta) Description: This herbaceous perennial plant is about 3-6" tall. It consists of a tuft of basal leaves that develops during the late spring and persists through the winter. These leaves are up to 3" long and across; they have slender petioles up to 6" long.


Hibiscus is a genus of flowering plants in the mallow family, Malvaceae. The genus is quite large, comprising several hundred species that are native to warm temperate, subtropical and tropical regions throughout the world.


Horehound is native to Europe and Asia and has been naturalized to other areas, including the US. It is a perennial, aromatic herb of the mint family. The plant has oval leaves covered with white, woolly hairs, and bears small, white flowers.


The horse chestnut and buckeyes have attractive, whitish flowers, occurring in showy clusters. The horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum ) is a tree that can grow as tall as about 115 feet (35 m), and is native to Asia and southeastern Europe.


Horseradish, Armoracia rusticana, is an herbaceous perennial plant in the family Brassicaceae that is cultivated for its large, edible root. The leaves of the plant grow in a distinctive rosette pattern sprouting from single or multiple stems.


Horsetail, perennial plant of genus Equisetum, the only living representative of the very ancient and primitive class Sphenopsida, tree-sized members of which were prominent in the land vegetation of the Carboniferous era (353-300 million years ago).


Impatiens walleriana, commonly called impatiens or bizzy Lizzy, is the most popular annual bedding plant in the U.S. today. For easy-to-grow, non-stop flowering in shady conditions, it has no equal. It is a bushy, succulent-stemmed tender perennial that grows in a spreading mound to 6-24” tall depending on variety.



Bearded iris produce leaves, flower stems, and roots from a thick, root like structure called a rhizome. As the plant matures, the rhizome produces more rhizomes, which in turn lead to more leaves and flowers.


Jamaican dogwood is a plant. The root bark is used to make medicine. Despite serious safety concerns, Jamaican dogwood is used for anxiety and fear, for sleep problems (especially sleeplessness due to nervous tension), and as a daytime sedative.


juniper Any evergreen shrub or tree of the genus Juniperus, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Junipers have needle-like or scale-like leaves. The aromatic timber is used for making pencils, and the berry-like cones of common juniper for flavoring gin.


Kava kava is a dioecious (having male and female reproductive parts of the plant on different individuals) shrub native to the Pacific islands. Itsbotanical name is Piper methysticum ; it is a member of the Piperaceae, or pepper, family. The narcotic drink made from the roots of this shrub is also called kava kava.


The kukui nut tree in Hawaii has played an important plant in traditional culture and lifestyle. The nut was particularly useful. Hawaiians used the oil from the nuts to coat fisherman's nets or to illuminate candle-pods. The outer shell of the rich-colored nuts became a natural dye for tattoos.


Lavender is the name given to several species of herbaceous, perennial shrubs in the genus Lavandula which are grown as ornamental plants or for essential oil. Lavender plants are small, branching and spreading shrubs with grey-green leaves and long flowering shoots.


Melissa officinalis, commonly called lemon balm, is a bushy herbaceous perennial of the mint family that is typically grown in herb gardens and border fronts for its lemon-scented leaves. Tiny, two-lipped, white flowers appear in the leaf axils throughout summer.


Lobelia inflata, also known as Indian tobacco, wild tobacco, pukeweed, emetic weed, asthma weed and gag-root, is native to North America and can commonly be found growing wild over much of the United States. Lobelia derives its name from Matthias de Lobel, a sixteenth-century Flemish botanist. The erect stem reaches a height of between 6 in (15 cm) and several feet. The many small blue flowers appear in midsummer and are visible through late fall. The stem is hairy, and the plant contains a milk-like sap.


Maca (Lepidium meyenii) is a root crop (technically more of a stem crop) that was developed in the Andes. ... Maca is related to many more familiar crop plants. It shares the genus Lepidium with garden cress (L. sativum) and other lesser known edibles.


Magnolia grandiflora is a medium to large evergreen tree which may grow 120 ft (37 m) tall. It typically has a single stem (or trunk) and a pyramidal shape.


This plant species is an annual that forms a branching vine up to 3' in length. The stems have abundant white hairs. The alternate leaves occur on long petioles along the stems. The leaves are up to 2½" long and 3" across, while the petioles are about twice as long as the leaves. The palmate leaves are orbicular to kidney-shaped (reniform), with 5 or more shallow lobes, and a crenate margin. They are deeply indented at the base and often have short hairs across the upper or lower surface.


The shade and the shallow, fibrous roots may interfere with grass growing under the trees. Deep, well-drained loam is the best rooting medium, although sugar maples can grow well on sandy soil which has a good buildup of humus. Light (or loose) clay soils are also well known to support sugar maple growth.


Marsh marigold is a perennial herb in the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae). Also known as cowslip, cowflock, or kingcup, it is a lovely harbinger of spring. As its name suggests, marsh marigold is a plant of wet places such as marshes, fens, ditches, wet woods, swamps.


Marsh mallow (Althaea officinalis ) is a perennial plant that grows in salt marshes, damp meadows, and on the banks of tidal rivers and seas. ... The Latin name Althaea comes from the Greek word altho, which means to heal or to cure.


The unique foliage is deeply indented on the margins. It's reminiscent of an umbrella when it first unfurls in spring. The student of Mayapple plants will detect some variation in the leaves from plant to plant. The namesake "apple" is a fruit that succeeds the short-lived white flower.


The herb that we call oregano can be split into two main varieties: European (Origanum vulgare) and Mexican (Lippia graveolens). They don't taste particularly similar, and Mexican oregano has a stronger flavor with a hint of lemon to it.


Mexican poppy grows up to one meter in height. It has typical poppy flowers, hollow stems and a 'pepper shaker' seed capsule. Prior to flowering it resembles a thistle because of its toothed and prickly leaves. The plant is bluish-green or grayish-green in color with waxy marbling to the leaves.


(Silybum marianum or Cardus marianum ) is a plant used for treating liver disorders, breast-feeding problems , and other illnesses. The active ingredient of the herb, silymarin, is found in the ripe seeds of the plant. The milk thistle plant has a long stem, green leaves with white spots, and pink to purple spiky flowered head (which true to its name, resembles a thistle).


Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris ) also known as common artemisia, felon herb, St. John's herb, chrysanthemum weed, sailor's tobacco, and moxa is a perennial member of the Compositae family, and a close relative of wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L. ) Mugwort has a long history of folk tradition and use.


Muira puama is a plant. The wood and root are used to make medicine. Muira puama is used for preventing sexual disorders and to increase interest in sexual activity (as an aphrodisiac). In combination with other herbs, muira puama is used as a remedy for male sexual performance problems (erectile dysfunction, ED).


V. thapsus is a dicotyledonous plant that produces a rosette of leaves in its first year of growth. The leaves are large, up to 50 cm long. The second-year plants normally produce a single unbranched stem, usually 1–2 m tall.


Mustards, (Brassica spp.) are herbaceous annualplants in the family Brassicaceae grown for their seeds which are used as a spice. Mustard plants are thin herbaceous herbs with yellow flowers. The leaves of the plant are toothed, lobed, and occasionally have the larger terminal lobes.


Galls are abnormal growths that occur on leaves, twigs, roots, or flowers of many plants. Most galls are caused by irritation and/or stimulation of plant cells due to feeding or egg-laying by insects such as aphids, midges, wasps, or mites.


It is a large, stately tree that grows up to over 100 feet tall, and 38 to 50 inches in diameter, with a round to wide spreading irregular crown. White oak bark is whitish or light gray, varying from scaly to irregularly platy or ridged and furrowed.


Oregon grape is native to western North America and is particularly prominent in the Pacific Northwest as the name suggests. The Oregon grape is a bushy, flowering perennial with shiny, holly-like leaves. It is commonly found in mountainous regions and adapts easier to its environment than the closely related barberry.


Oxeye daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare) is a beautiful flower, one that is both loved and hated. It was a plague on pastures and crop fields across Europe. It can be confused with Shasta daisy(Leucanthemum x superbum/Chrysanthemum maximum), which can grow 6-12 inches taller and has larger flowers and foliage.


Passiflora, known also as the passion flowers or passionvines, is a genus of about 500 species of flowering plants, the namesakes of the family Passifloraceae. They are mostly vines, with some being shrubs, and a few species being herbaceous. For information about the fruit of the passiflora plant, see passionfruit.


The inner bark of pau d'arco is used as an herbal medicine, most notably in the treatment of cancer and infections . The pau d'arco tree grows up to 150 ft (45 m) tall and 10 ft (3 m) in diameter, and is prized for its lumber. Rainforest medicine men scrape the inner bark and brew a tea from it.


Pawpaw is a small, deciduous tree that may attain 5 to 10 m in height. In the forest understory, trees often exist in clumps or thickets. This may result from root suckering or seedlings developing from fruits that dropped to the ground from an original seedling tree.


Peonies are perennials that come back every year to take your breath away. The plants may live longer than you do, some have been known to thrive for 100 years.


Peppermint (Mentha piperita ) is an aromatic perennial plant that grows to a height of about 3 ft (1 m). It has light purple flowers and green leaves with serrated edges. Peppermint belongs to the Lamiaceae family and grows throughout North America, Asia, and Europe.


Peruvian Bark or Cinchona calisaya is an evergreen shrub or smalltree up to 8 m tall and is a known medicinal plant used as a treatment for fevers and malaria due to quinine contents from thebark.


Peyote (Lophophora williamsii) is a small, spineless, mind-altering cactus that, for centuries, has been terribly misunderstood by Western society. It grows naturally in the desert thorn scrub landscape along the Texas border with Mexico down into north-central Mexico and has been used by indigenous peoples for millennia.


Scotch or Scots pine is an introduced species which has been widely planted for the purpose of producing Christmas trees. It is an extremely hardy species which is adaptable to a wide variety of soils and sites. ... The needles of Scotch pine are produced in bundles of two.


Common Plantain (Plantago major) Common Plantain. Plantago major. Plantain family (Plantaginaceae)Description: This herbaceous perennial plant is consists of a low rosette of basal leaves about 5-12" across, from which one or more flowering stalks develop.


Large clump forming perennial that can grow from 5-8ft tall in height. Very ornamental looking flowers and berries. 


Corn poppy, (Papaver rhoeas), also called field poppy or Flanders poppy, annual (rarely biennial) plant of the poppy family (Papaveraceae), native to Europe, North Africa, and Asia. The corn poppy is an erect herb, typically no taller than 70 cm (28 inches).


Prickly pear cactus represent about a dozen species of the Opuntia genus (Family Cactaceae) in the North American deserts. All have flat, fleshy pads that look like large leaves. The pads are actually modified branches or stems that serve several functions, water storage, photosynthesis and flower production.


Pumpkin belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae and is grown primarily as a vegetable or ornamental plant.Pumpkin plants are short lived annual or perennial vines with branching tendrils and broad lobed leaves. The plant produces large yellow or orange flowers and a pepo fruit (berry with a thick rind) known as a pumpkin.


Quassia is a plant. The wood is used as medicine. Quassia is used for treating an eating disorder called anorexia, indigestion, constipation, and fever. It is also used to rid the intestines of various kinds of worms; as a tonic or purgative; and as a mouthwash.


Raspberry is the name given to two plant species in the genus Rubus, Rubus idaeus (red raspberry) and Rubus occidentalis (black raspberry) grown for their edible fruit. Raspberry plants have perennial root systems and biennial stems which are known as canes.


Red clover is a wild edible plant belonging to the legume family that is commonly used as food for cattle. This common edible plant has a long and colourful history. Traditional Chinese medicine believed that it was a good tonic for colds, to purify the blood, and at one time they burned it as incense.


The red roots and root bark of New Jersey tea were commonly used by North American Indians for infections of the upper respiratory tract. The root bark of the plant is used by herbalists today, and are used notably in remedies for problems of the lymph system.


The large flowers are deep rose or purple. The shrub is attractive enough to use as a specimen, and it also looks great in groups. This species is sometimes called orchid rockrose. Sun Rose(Cistus albidus) grows 3 feet tall and wide with a dense, bushy habit.


Rose hips develop on wild roses as the flowers drop off. The rose hip, also called the rose haw, is actually the fruit of the rose. These fruits are one of the most concentrated sources of vitamin C available. These plants are deciduous shrubs native to Europe and western Asia.


Rosemary, Rosmarinus officinalis, is an erect, bushy evergreen shrub in the family Lamiaceae grown for its leaves which are used as a herb. The rosemary plant is usually erect in growth habit and possess branched woody stems with tufts of leaves. Rosemary originates from the Mediterranean.


Salvia apiana, the white sage, bee sage, or sacred sage, is an evergreen perennial shrub that is native to the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico, found mainly in the coastal sage scrub habitat of Southern California and Baja California, on the western edges of the Mojave and Sonoran deserts.


Aralia nudicaulis (commonly wild sarsaparilla, false sarsaparilla, shot bush, small spikenard, wild licorice, and rabbit root) is a flowering plant of northern and eastern North America which reaches a height of 30–60 cm (12–24 in) with creeping underground stems.


Sassafras albidum is often grown as an ornamental tree for its unusual leaves and aromatic scent. ... Sassafras wood was also used by Native Americans in the southeastern United States as a fire-starter because of the flammability of its natural oils found within the wood and the leaves.


Shatavari is a species of asparagus plant that has been used for many centuries in Indian Ayurvedic medicine. Shatavari, also known as satavari, satavar, or Asparagus racemosus (A. racemosus), is said to promote fertility and have a range of health benefits, particularly for the female reproductive system.


Saw palmetto is an extract derived from the deep purple berries of the saw palmetto fan palm (Serenoa repens ), a plant indigenous to the coastal regions of the southern United States and southern California.


Self Heal. Prunella vulgaris. ... Self-heal, as the name suggests was once a sought-after medicinal herb by herbalists and country folk alike. It was once used to cure a variety of health ailments. Distinguishing Features: Self-heal is a perennial plant with a solitary or clustered upright stem.


Sheep Sorrel. Rumex acetosella. Distinguishing Features: Sheep sorrel is composed of a clump of arrow-shaped leaves growing as a rosette which are joined underground by a creeping root system. In spring, each rosette forms a reddish upright flower stem.


Skullcap is a plant. The above ground parts are used to make medicine. The most often substituted species are Western Skullcap (Scuttelaria canescens), Southern Skullcap (Scutellaria cordifolia), or Marsh Skullcap (Scutellaria galericulatum).


White snakeroot, (Ageratina altissima), also called white sanicle, poisonous North American herb of the aster family (Asteraceae). White snake root is a perennial plant that can grow up to 1.5 meters (5 feet) tall. It can be single-stemmed or clumping and has 18-cm (7-inch) leaves opposite each other.


Soapwort (Saponaria officinalis) Description: This herbaceous perennial plant is about 1–2½' tall and more or less erect. From the axils of the upper leaves, some short side stems are produced, otherwise it is little branched. The leaves are sessile against the stem, otherwise they have short broad petioles.


Solomon's seal is a classic shade garden plant that adds an architectural component to garden beds, thanks to its arching stems. In spring, these stems become lined with small, bell-shaped white blooms on the undersides. These blossoms later give way to blue-black berries that are adored by wildlife.


Spearmint, (Mentha spicata), aromatic herb of the mint family (Lamiaceae), widely used for culinary purposes. Spearmint is a perennial plant that aggressively spreads by creeping stolons. The simple fragrant leaves are sharply serrated and arranged oppositely along the square stems.


Veronica are neat tidy plants that are beautiful in or out of flower. Their blossoms provide rich blue, purple, pink or white shades of long-lasting color.Speedwell are carefree and easy to grow perennials that prefer well-drained soil with full to part sun, Butterflies and hummingbirds will make frequent appearances.


Spilanthes Herb Care: How To Grow Spilanthes Toothache Plant. Spilanthes toothache plant is a lesser known flowering annual native to the tropics. Known technically as either Spilanthes oleracea or Acmella oleracea, its whimsical common name is garnered from the antiseptic properties of Spilanthes toothache plant.


Spruce, any of about 40 species of evergreen ornamental and timber trees constituting the genus Picea of the conifer family Pinaceae, native to the temperate and cold regions of the Northern Hemisphere. They are pyramidal trees with whorled branches and thin, scaly bark.


Rhus typhina is a dioecious, deciduous shrub or small tree growing up to 5 m (16 ft) tall by 6 m (20 ft) broad. ... The velvety texture and the forking pattern of the branches, reminiscent of antlers, have led to the common name "stag's horn sumac". Staghorn sumac grows as female or male clones.


Stinging nettle is an erect, herbaceous perennial that is widely known for its unpleasant stinging hairs on the stems and lower leaf surface. It reproduces by wind-dispersed seeds and creeping rhizomes (horizontal underground stems), and grows in dense clumps, often forming large colonies.


Suma is a plant. It is sometimes called Brazilian ginseng, although it is not related to ginseng. The root is used to make medicine. Suma is used as an “adaptogen” to help the body adapt to stress by improving the immune system.


Sunflower. Helianthus annuus. ... Wild sunflowers are native to North America and were naturalized in Europe in the XVI century. Distinguishing Features: Wild sunflowers are coarse, hairy, leafy, fast-growing annual plants that typically grow to a height of 1 to 1.5 meters high and have stiff upright stalks.


Turtlehead is a perennial found throughout most of the eastern half of the United States. It generally is found along stream banks and damp ground, and usually grows to a height of 2 to 3 feet. The plant has a square stem with leaves that are opposite, toothed, and narrow.


True unicorn root (Aletris farinosa L.) is a low-growing perennial herb native to eastern North America. Found in old growth forests, the true unicorn root plant is currently thought to be at risk due to destruction of its habitat. The rhizome, an underground stem, is commercially processed into dried pieces.


Valerian (Valeriana officinalis, Caprifoliaceae) is a perennial flowering plant native to Europe and Asia. Crude extract of valerian root may have sedative and anxiolytic effects, and is commonly sold in dietary supplement capsules to promote sleep.


White pine makes a fine specimen tree, but can also serve as a background plant, given its evergreen foliage. These trees grow in a pyramidal Christmas tree shape, with the tiered branches emerging at right angles from the central trunk.


When wilted, the leaves can be poisonous. Wild cherry flowers appear in dense clusters at the ends of the slender branches of the trees. Each mature cherry is smooth and round, with a slightly bitter, acidic taste. They are commonly used for flavoring rum and jellies, and are harmless to humans.


Asarum canadense, commonly called wild ginger, is a Missouri native spring wildflower which occurs in rich woods and wooded slopes throughout the State. Basically a stemless plant which features two downy, heart-shaped to kidney-shaped, handsomely veined, dark green, basal leaves (to 6" wide).


Lactuca virosa is a plant in the Lactuca (lettuce) genus, ingested often for its mild analgesic and sedative effects. It is related to common lettuce (L. sativa), and is often called wild lettuce, bitterlettuce, laitue vireuse, opium lettuce, poisonous lettuce, tall lettuce, great lettuce or rakutu-karyumu-so.


Wild licorice (Glycyrrhiza lepidota Pursh, Fabaceae) is an erect perennial that grows to 1 - 1.5 m tall, from deep, woody rhizomes that have a licorice flavor. The leaves are alternate, each with 7 - 21 oblong leaflets. The flowers are yellowish-white, in spike-like clusters from the leaf axils.


Wild rose flowers appear from spring through summer with a few blossoms in the fall. The blossoms are made up of five pink petals surrounding a pale yellow center. This 2-inch-wide flower opens flat and emits a strong sweet fragrance. This shrub is a favorite for feeding honeybees.


The Wild yam (Dioscorea villosa) vine can grow to be 15 feet long during a single season. This plant can be found throughout the middle and eastern portions of North America. The leaves are ovate or cordate in shape, with clear veins and entire margins. The lower sets of leaves grow in whorls from the stem.


Salix alba, the white willow, is a species of willow native to Europe and western and central Asia. The name derives from the white tone to the undersides of the leaves. It is a medium-sized to large deciduous tree growing up to 10–30 m tall, with a trunk up to 1 m diameter and an irregular, often-leaning crown.


Witchhazel Hamamelis virginiana. The native witch hazel can be grown as a large shrub or small tree and offers fantastic fall attributes. Fragrant, yellow flowers bloom from October through December. This is a great specimen to plant as an under story or for a shrub border in large areas.



Betony is an attractive, hardy perennial that's perfect for filling in shady spots. It has a long blooming period and self-seeds without an aggressive spread. It can also be dried and used as an herb.


Yarrow (Achillea millefolium ) is an aromatic member of the Asteraceae (Compositae) family. This perennial European native with lovely, fern-like foliage is also named millefoil, or thousand leaves, because of its finely-divided leaves. The feather-like leaves may reach 6 in (15.2 cm) in length.


Yaupon holly is an evergreen shrub or small tree reaching 5–9 meters tall, with smooth, light gray bark and slender, hairy shoots. The species may be distinguished from the similar Ilex cassine by its smaller leaves with a rounded, not acute apex.


Yellow dock (Rumex crispus ) is a small, leafy plant that grows wild throughout the world. Yellow dock is also known as curly or curled dock because of its long lance shaped leaves that are slightly ruffled along its edges.


Yerba mate, or Ilex paraguariensis, begins as a shrub and then matures to a tree and can grow up to 15 meters (49 ft) tall. The leaves are often called yerba (Spanish) or erva (Portuguese), both of which mean "herb".


Yuccas are widely grown as ornamental plants in gardens. Many species also bear edible parts, including fruits, seeds, flowers, flowering stems, and more rarely roots. Dried yucca leaves and trunk fibers have a low ignition temperature, making the plant desirable for use in starting fires via friction.



 Psychedelic plants or fungus guide

This is a complimentary ''non commercial'' page for basic reference of psychedelic plants or fungus described in the book 

‘’ A Shaman’s True Tales & Herbal Remedies.’’


These plants and fungus's have been used by indigenous people of the America's and Canada for sacred ceremonies and in some part for powerful medicine.


The author is neither responsible nor liable for any readers use or misuse of any plant described in the book or illustrated on this page. Although plants described in the book are pictured here, this web site is for basic reference purposes only, and is not for commercial gain.  Although the images presented are of the actual labeled species, images are only for basic referencing and not to be used as models for positive safe identification. The images presented are public domain internet stock, and descriptions are from Wikipedia, the author is not liable for any readers that misidentify plants shown or described.


The author in no way encourages the use or misuse of any psychedelic plant or fungus pictured on this page.


This website was created by Donald B. Young Jr.  for the readers educational convenience.

It has taken considerable work to compile the images and content.


These images may be subject to copyright.













Several species, but all have the same chemical properties.



My old plant guide website